We are offering convenient telehealth e-visits and home diagnostic services for all of our existing patients as well as for new patients.

Learn More

Sleep Medicine Acronyms (From APAP to Zzzz): Part 3, N-R

Here is a series on abbreviations you are likely to encounter during your visits to a sleep specialist or sleep center.

This third section highlights terms that start with the letters N through R.

See also:

  • Sleep Medicine Acronyms (From APAP to Zzzz): Part 1, A-D
  • Sleep Medicine Acronyms (From APAP to Zzzz): Part 2, E-M

Sleep Medicine Acronyms (N-R)

N

NIV/NIPPV

Noninvasive Ventilation or Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation . This refers to forms of respiratory therapy that people use by way of a mask delivery system to help them to breathe better independently. (By comparison, a ventilator is a respiratory device, inserted into the trachea, which breathes for someone.) PAP therapy (CPAP, BiPAP, APAP) and ASV all qualify as forms of NIV.Learn more:

  • FAST FACTS: THE ABCS OF POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE

  • How does a CPAP machine work?

  • Problems with CPAP: When is BiPAP therapy the best treatment?

  • Using Auto-CPAP (APAP) Therapy: It’s not a set-and-forget option

  • Adaptive Servo Ventilation (ASV) and Central Sleep Apnea

NPSG/PSG

Nocturnal Polysomnogram or Polysomnogram . This is an overnight sleep study which takes place in the sleep clinic or lab environment; its purpose is to identify and diagnose sleep disorders.Learn more:

  • What is the best sleep study for my problem?

  • How much does a sleep study cost? (Prices and Rates)

  • Does Insurance Pay for Sleep Studies? (Coverage, Costs, and Rates)

NREM

NonREM sleep. The 3 stages of sleep when rapid-eye movement does not occur. These include sleep stages 1, 2, and 3 of the sleep cycle.Learn more:

  • Circadian Rhythm Disorder and the Sleep Wake Cycle

  • What is REM sleep?

O

OAT

Oral Appliance Therapy. This refers to the various kinds of dental appliances that can be used to treat snoring, upper airway resistance, or sleep apnea. Some are maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) devices, while others restrict the movement of the tongue in order to keep the upper airway clear.Learn more:

  • What Is Sleep Apnea? (Signs, Symptoms, and Risks)

  • FAST FACTS: SLEEP APNEA vs SNORING

OHS

Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome. Also known as Pickwickian syndrome , OHS is a sleep-breathing disorder common to obese people, in which failure to breathe deeply or rapidly enough results in dangerously low blood oxygen levels and high carbon dioxide levels in the blood, especially during sleep.Learn more:

  • Sleep Apnea and Weight Gain: Reasons and Answers

  • FAST FACTS: THE ABCS OF POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE

OSA/OSAS/OSAHS

Obstructive Sleep Apnea or ObstructiveSleep Apnea Syndrome or Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypoventilation Syndrome. This refers to a sleep-breathing disorder in which the upper airway becomes partially or completely blocked for at least 10 seconds while sleeping, leading to struggles to get adequate oxygen into the bloodstream. Those who suffer at least 5 or more of these pauses during sleep are diagnosed with OSA.Learn more:

  • What Is Sleep Apnea? (Signs, Symptoms, and Risks)

  • FAST FACTS: SLEEP APNEA vs SNORING

P

PAP

Positive Airway Pressure. This therapy, used for treating sleep apnea, delivers preset ranges of therapeutic air pressure for the user. It includes CPAP, APAP, BiPAP, and ASV therapies.Learn more:

  • FAST FACTS: THE ABCS OF POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE

  • How does a CPAP machine work?

  • Problems with CPAP: When is BiPAP therapy the best treatment?

  • Using Auto-CPAP (APAP) Therapy: It’s not a set-and-forget option

  • Adaptive Servo Ventilation (ASV) and Central Sleep Apnea

PLMS/PLMD

Periodic Leg Movements of Sleep or Periodic Leg Movement Disorder. Periodic leg movements of sleep can occur in most anyone. However, when they happen frequently in a pattern and are not the result of arousals due to apnea, they can turn into a disorder: the pattern interrupts sleep, leading to sleep deprivation, excessive daytime sleepiness, or other concerns. PLMD is similar to RLS, but it only happens during sleep, whereas RLS takes place during the day or at bedtime.Learn more:

  • Restless Leg Syndrome: Causes and Symptoms

R

RBD

REM Behavior Disorder. A parasomnia in which the brain fails to paralyze the body’s muscles during REM sleep, allowing the person (potentially and dangerously) to act out dreams.Learn more:

  • What is a Parasomnia? Things that go BUMP in the night!

  • What is REM sleep?

RDI

Respiratory Disturbance Index. A metric used to measure the severity of sleep apnea. It is based on the total number (per hour) of complete obstructions (apnea), partial obstructions (hypopnea) in breathing, and respiratory-effort related arousals (RERA), expressed as an average. Learn more:

  • What Is Sleep Apnea? (Signs, Symptoms, and Risks)

  • FAST FACTS: SLEEP APNEA vs SNORING

REM

Rapid Eye Movement. This stage of sleep is considered “paradoxical” because the brain is often as active, or more active, at this time than during wake. It is identified by distinctive patterns of eye movement that occur during this stage.Learn more:

  • What is REM sleep?

RERA

Respiratory Effort Related Arousals. This are partial obstructions to the upper airway that occur during sleep but which do not last as long as apneas and which may not result in a reduction in blood oxygen levels.Learn more:

  • What Is Sleep Apnea? (Signs, Symptoms, and Risks)

  • FAST FACTS: SLEEP APNEA vs SNORING

RLS

Restless Leg Syndrome. This is a movement disorder of sleep which can also exhibit symptoms during the day. The symptoms include unusual twitching, spasming, or other unpleasant sensation in the legs (and sometimes the arms) that may require movement or massage to relieve. RLS happens during bedtime and can lead to delays in falling asleep.Learn more:

  • Restless Leg Syndrome: Causes and Symptoms

Further Reading

News & Updates

What is a Split Night Sleep Study and why would I need one?

When you are scheduled to undergo a sleep study, you may not realize that there is more than one kind of sleep study. Aside from the home sleep apnea test (HSAT)which you may have already experienced there are three main in-lab, overnight sleep tests you might encounter. Many people start with an overnight or nocturnal…

Read more

Sleep Apnea Raises Your Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: Get the Facts

You may have heard of sleep apnea, but do you really know what it is? Far from a harmless sleep disorder that keeps you from a sound night’s rest, sleep apnea can lead to serious health complications, including sudden cardiac death. According to the American Sleep Apnea Association, 22 million Americans suffer from sleep apnea.…

Read more

Tips for Cleaning Your CPAP Machine

Every day you take great pains to ensure that you’re wearing clean socks and underwear for hygienic purposes. This ingrained standard of care is the type of thing you should be doing when it comes to your CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) machine. Just think, you spend a fair number of hours every night with…

Read more